|Mourning doves display courtship behaviors. Photo by J.J. Meyer|
Valentine’s Day cards often feature doves, a symbol of love since ancient times. Lovers are said to be cooing when they talk sweetly to each other. And when they express affection, they’re acting “lovey dovey.”
Mourning doves have recently started to coo, which means mating season has begun. The call, referred to as an “advertising coo,” is a two-syllable coo followed by two or three louder coos. Unmated males generally coo from a conspicuous perch in an attempt to attract a mate.
“The call of a mourning dove sounds mournful, which is where they get their name,” said Sylvia Gallagher, chairperson of bird information for Sea and Sage Audubon, Orange County’s local chapter.
This species has a courtship ritual that begins with males performing an aerial display with vigorous and noisy wing flapping. After they select a potential mate, “males bow, pump their heads and coo to the female,” she said.
Preening and nibbling of the head and neck precede mating. This courtship behavior gives way to “billing,” which refers to the male opening his beak to the female. If interested, she inserts her beak into his and they briefly pump their heads up and down. The female crouches as an invitation to mate.
Naturalists agree that mourning doves are seasonally monogamous and there are indications birds may pair up again in subsequent breeding seasons.
“They’re prolific nesters,” Gallagher said. “But they build super sloppy nests.”
These loose flimsy nests are made of pine needles, twigs and grass. Unlined nests provide little insulation for nestlings, but the shoddy construction works for the species. Mourning doves generally lay two eggs per clutch and with up to six broods or hatchings per year, a pair can produce up to a dozen offspring. Estimates of their population range from 100 to 475 million in North America.
Both sexes participate in building the nest, incubating the eggs and caring for the young. One parent is usually on the nest at all times. Babies fledge at 15-18 days. Parents continue to feed the young until 25-27 days old.
Mourning doves are common year-round residents in Southern California. Both sexes are similar with plump bodies, long tails and short legs. Feathers are mostly gray with black-bordered white tips on tail and black spots on the upper wings. Males are slightly larger and more colorful than females with their pale rosy breasts and bluish crowns and necks.
Mourning doves are ground feeders. Attract these birds by offering white millet, black oil sunflower seeds and cracked corn.